Eco-friendly, Environmental Hazards, Science

Cigarette Butts Could Soon Be Turned Into Something Useful

A research team in Australia has come up with a way to turn cigarette butts into pavement.
Soon, these nasty things may be IN your asphalt, not ON it. Photo via Pixabay

How do you take the remains of a nasty habit and turn it into something that benefits everyone? Researchers at RMIT University in Melbourne, Australia, may have a solution.

Every year, trillions of cigarette butts are produced worldwide, and most of those are discarded into the environment. Loaded with toxins, they take a very long time to break down, and when they do, all their poisonous chemicals are released into waterways.

But the team at RMIT University, led by Dr. Abbas Mohajerani, has shown that cigarette butts can be mixed with asphalt and lead to a product that not only tolerates wear and tear of daily traffic but also reduces thermal conductivity.

What this means is that the disgusting remains that some inconsiderate smokers leave behind can solve a big waste problem and could help to reduce the urban heat island effect common in large cities.

“I have been trying for many years to find sustainable and practical methods for solving the problem of cigarette butt pollution,” said Mohajerani, a senior lecturer in RMIT’s school of engineering.

“In this research, we encapsulated the cigarette butts with bitumen and paraffin wax to lock in the chemicals and prevent any leaching from the asphalt concrete. The encapsulated cigarette butts were mixed with hot asphalt mix for making samples,” he added.

About 6 trillion cigarettes are produced each year, resulting in more than 1.2 million tons of cigarette butts. As the world’s population—and the number of smokers—continues to grow, these numbers are expected to increase by more than 50 percent by the year 2025.

“Encapsulated cigarette butts developed in this research will be a new construction material which can be used in different applications and lightweight composite products,” Mohajerani said. “The only ways to control [the chemicals in the cigarette waste] are either by effective encapsulation for the production of new lightweight aggregates or by the incorporation in fired clay bricks.”

How’s that for an unlikely solution to a big problem? I think this idea is pretty darn brilliant, and I’ll be curious to see how the research plays out in real-world applications.

Conservation, Eco-friendly, Environmentalist, Green

Trump Forest Fights “Monumental Stupidity”

The goal of Trump Forest is to replant an area the size of Kentucky with trees to combat the Trump administration's climate policies.
The goal of Trump Forest is to replant an area the size of Kentucky with trees to combat the Trump administration’s climate policies. Photo via Pixabay

There’s a new charity in town—one whose goal is to launch a global reforestation project to counteract negative effects caused by the Trump administration’s policies and actions on climate issues.

Founded by two twenty-something activists in New Zealand who, according to the Huffington Post, “felt compelled to act after Trump’s executive order in March that essentially prioritized the fossil fuel industry over the environment,” the goal is for Trump Forest (tagline: “where ignorance grows trees”) to grow so large that it can offset the additional carbon released into the atmosphere if the White House rolls back the Obama-era Clean Power Plan.

The target of the campaign, called “Make Earth Great Again,” is to have more than 110 billion trees donated to local tree-planting organizations.

Dr. Daniel Price, a climate scientist and glaciologist based in New Zealand, is one of the three activists. He said, “We wanted something tangible that people could do that would actually have a physical impact on what the U.S. government is doing.”

Participants in Trump Forest can use the projects website to donate to Eden Reforestation Projects, a charity that plants trees in Madagascar, or make a donation in Trump’s name to a local tree-planting organization.

As of August 4, the number of trees pledged has hit the 50,000 mark since it launched in March of 2017.

Activist Adrien Taylor, also based in New Zealand, has paid about NZ$3,000 (about $2,100 US) to plant the first 1,000 trees along the Port Hills mountain range near Christchurch.

“We’re working with the nonprofit Trees for Canterbury, which specializes in planting native trees throughout the Canterbury region of New Zealand and the South Island, as well as the local city council,” Taylor told Fast Company. But, Taylor said, “We have no intention of making any money from this, or handling money in any way whatsoever. If you do make a pledge, we’ll link you to reputable local or international tree-planting organizations. You will make the donation directly to them.”

The Trump Forest team will ask for a receipt so they can visualize its global forestry efforts—a virtual map that will allow viewers to see all the trees planted in response to the Trump administration’s environmental policies.

“I think the real and exciting part of this is that there’s an actual benefit growing from Trump’s stupidity,” Taylor said.

To learn more about how you can participate in Trump Forest, visit the organization’s website.

Nature, Science

Surprise! Two Different Species of Butterflies Are Actually Not Two Different Species

Researchers have recently discovered that what they thought was a unique species of butterfly was actually the female of a species that has been known for more than a century.
Researchers are constantly learning about new species of tropical butterflies. Who knows what they’ll find out about this white baumnymphe butterfly in the future? Photo via Pixabay

The iridescent blue male sunburst cerulean-satyr butterfly has been known for more than a century. But a more recently discovered dull brown butterfly was given a completely different species name.

However, an international team of nine butterfly researchers used DNA “bar code” sequence data to prove that the dull brown butterfly is actually the female cerulean-satyr butterfly.

Males and females look dramatically different from one another, a phenomenon called sexual dimorphism. This is common in birds, where, for example, the male Anna’s Hummingbird is very bright and flashy, whereas the female’s feathers boast a much more muted color palette.

The classification mistake with the butterflies probably occurred because the brown butterflies are rare than the blue ones, and because sexual dimorphism is not common in most species of butterflies.

The research team collected and analyzed DNA bar codes—short, diagnostic gene sequences—for more than 300 species across the euptychiine group of butterflies that includes the sunburst cerulean-satyr. It turned out that the DNA sequences for the sunburst cerulean-satyr and the dull brown butterfly, which had been given a completely different species name, were identical.

“None of us thought about this possibility before, and we were all surprised by this outcome of our DNA analysis,” said study lead author Shinichi Nakahara of the University of Florida. “Given that males and females of most euptchiine butterflies look more or less the same, I guess no one thought that the female would look so different compared to the male.”

The discovery of the female sunburst cerulean-satyr butterfly contributed to the recognition of the male and female of two other species in this group, including a new species from the cloud forests in eastern Ecuador. The different-looking males and females of the two species means that the euptchiine group of butterflies is one of the most sexually dimorphic among the species.

A better understanding of the diversity and relationships among euptchiines makes it possible for scientists to think about bigger questions like why and how they diversified and the role wing patterns play in signaling between the sexes, Nakahara said.

“Our study will serve as the basis for developing a firm understanding of the true species diversity of this group and of Neotropical butterflies in general,” Nakahara said. “These findings are extremely valuable at a time when the biodiversity of the Neotropics is threatened, since it will be impossible to recognize and document the region’s unique elements of biodiversity after they are gone.”

Nature, Science

U.S. to Be Treated to a Full Solar Eclipse in August

Americans are going to be treated to a full solar eclipse on August 21, 2017.
Americans are going to be treated to an amazing event on August 21. Photo via Pixabay

On August 21, the moon will come between the earth and the sun, casting a 70-mile shadow from Oregon to South Carolina in what is likely to be the most-viewed solar eclipse ever recorded.

Already being referred to as the “Great American Eclipse,” this will be the first coast-to-coast solar eclipse in 99 years.

“The US only covers 2 percent of the globe, so we get very few eclipses,” said Matthew Penn, an astronomer at the National Optical Astronomy Observatory. “And to have one travel across the entire country is an unprecedented sort of opportunity. It’ll be a heck of a day.”

Penn will be running a project during the eclipse called Citizen CATE (Continental-America Telescopic Eclipse) that will attempt to record and put together a movie of the full eclipse in order to study the sun’s magnetic field. Data will be collected via telescopes, cameras, and computers operated by volunteers across the country.

The eclipse will first be visible from the Oregon coast around 9:05 AM on the 21st, after which a partial eclipse will be viewable across the entire US, including Alaska and Hawaii. Canada, Central America, and northern South America will also get a view at varying points throughout the day.

More than 200 million people currently live within a day’s drive of the eclipse, which means it’s likely to be seen by more people than any other eclipse in recent history.

Scientists are particularly excited about the part of the eclipse during which the sun’s corona, a magnetically energized region just above the sun’s surface, will be visible. Temperatures in this region will climb from 10,000 degrees Fahrenheit to nearly 4 million degrees—and scientists still don’t know why. So the chance to study the area more closely is pretty exciting, particularly since the innermost regions can only be seen during a total solar eclipse.

In addition to various individual Earth residents, 11 NASA spacecraft and more than 50 high-altitude balloons will be taking photos and studying the effects of the eclipse on the earth’s atmosphere.

If you want to see the eclipse, be sure to wear proper viewing glasses to avoid damaging your eyes. You’ll want shades with these specifications, provided by NASA:

  • Certification information with a designated ISO 12312-2 international standard
  • Manufacturer’s name and address easily accessible to assure legitimacy
  • Less than three years old and without scratches or wrinkled lenses
  • NO homemade filters (they’re not as safe as the properly manufactured kind)

Happy solar eclipse viewing!

Conservation, Nature, Science

Home On the Range? Not So Much for Large Carnivores

New research reveals that large carnivores have lost more than 90 percent of their historic range.
Large carnivores like the cheetah have lost more than 90 percent of their historic ranges. Photo: Shutterstock

A recent study from the Oregon State University revealed that the six largest carnivores in the world have lost more than 90 percent of their historic range.

The researchers mapped the current range of 25 large carnivores and compared them with historic maps from 500 years ago.

“Of the 25 large carnivores we studied, 60 percent (15 species) have lost more than half of their historic ranges,” said researcher Christopher Wolf.

“As many carnivores were historically sympatric [descended from one common ancestor] and are at high risk of future range contraction, conservation should be accomplished at the level of whole predator guilds [groups of species that exploit the same resources, or who exploit different resources in related ways] when possible,” the researchers wrote in their report.

What this means is that contracting the range of one species—either through physical barriers like fencing or the widespread use of land for herds of domestic cattle—can have dramatic effects on large carnivores’ ability to survive in their historic ranges.

“This means that scientifically sound reintroductions of large carnivores into areas where they have been lost is vital both to conserve the large carnivores,” Wolf said. “This is very dependent on increasing human tolerance of large carnivores—a key predictor of reintroduction success.”

The researchers also say that reintroduction programs would be most successful in rural areas with low human population density and limited agricultural and livestock-raising use.

“Also, more large protected areas are urgently needed for large carnivore conservation,” said co-researcher William Ripple.

The good news is that it is possible to help these animals by changing human attitudes about them.

“Many large carnivores are resilient, particularly when human attitudes and policy favor their conservation,” the researchers wrote. “This helps to explain the large carnivore recoveries observed in Europe and elsewhere (e.g., gray wolves in the continental United States).”

Additionally, the relationship between increasing agriculture use and range contractions can be limited when predator-friendly agriculture methods are used.

But human exploitation of former large carnivore ranges isn’t the only thing we need to be on the lookout for.

“In the face of newer threats like anthropogenic climate change, it is critical to continue to monitor large carnivore ranges to ensure the future of these species,” the researchers conclude.

Ultimately, the stability of large carnivore populations is highly dependent on human behavior. Whether that involves evolution of agriculture and ranching methods or limiting the effects of climate change, the ultimate success of reintroducing these species in their historic ranges is dependent entirely on us.

Nature, Science

The World’s Oceans Now Have A Health Record

The oceans now have a health record, thanks to a team of scientists at UC Santa Barbara

Thanks to a team of researchers at UC Santa Barbara, the world’s oceans now have a health record.

And that health record is revealing clues about what might be behind ocean improvements or declines.

Analyzing data from 220 countries, the team gathered five years’ worth of ocean “vital signs” in a variety of areas ranging from water quality to food provision to tourism potential in order to create an Ocean Health Index. Their conclusion: While ocean health appears to be stable, the oceans around many of the countries analyzed are changing for the worse.

“With five years of assessments about where oceans are healthy and not as healthy, we finally have enough information to get a clear signal of what might be causing changes,” said study lead author Ben Halpern, executive director of the National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis at UC Santa Barbara.

Countries like Indonesia, Mexico, and Samoa, that are seeing improvements in their oceans are taking action to make things better, including improving management of wild-caught fisheries and creating marine protected areas.

On the other hand, the countries that saw a decline in ocean health where in consistent political turmoil. Many Arctic and sub-Arctic countries are seeing declines as well, due to the fact that coastlines are losing sea ice, which is a natural protection from storm damage and erosion.

“The Ocean Health Index created the first opportunity any of us has had to measure the health of our oceans in a comprehensive way and track changes with a single measure,” Halpern said.

According to the researchers, the index has scored the oceans’ overall health staying steady at a 71 out of 100. This shows that while the oceans aren’t dying, they aren’t thriving, either. The team will continue to collect data on ocean health every year.

“We believe the Ocean Health Index gives reason for hope by providing a detailed diagnosis of the state of ocean health and a framework that allows countries to identify and prioritize the most necessary resilience actions to improve ocean health,” said study co-author Johanna Polsenberg, senior director of governance and policy for Conservation International’s Center for Oceans. “This is where our work is most valuable. It helps to identify and highlight the necessary steps to ensure a healthy ocean into the future.”

I don’t know about you, but after seeing all the news about dying reefs, pollution, and overfishing, I’m surprised the oceans are as healthy as they are. Hopefully this new information will help governments and scientists to improve their health.

Environmental Hazards, Nature

Invasive Carp Jumps Barrier to Great Lakes

A fisherman caught an invasive silver carp nine miles from the Great Lakes. Photo: Shutterstock

A live Asian carp has been caught 9 miles from Lake Michigan.

This is a big deal. These fish “are voracious eaters, able to consume 5 to 20 percent of their body weight each day, leaving far less of the microscopic plant and animal life (phytoplankton and zooplankton) to support native fisheries,” says Fisheries and Oceans Canada. They have been blamed for pushing out native species and lowering water quality.

There are four types of Asian carp that are considered a threat to the Great Lakes: bighead, silver, black, and grass.

Millions of dollars have been spent to construct an electrified barrier designed to keep the invasive carp from entering the Great Lakes. But this carp, weighing 8 pounds and measuring 28 inches long, got past that barrier. It was caught “with a gill net by a contracted commercial fisher,” the Asian Carp Regional Coordinating Committee said in a statement.

“The news of an Asian carp found within nine miles of the Great Lakes is cause for serious concern,” Ohio Republican Senator Rob Portman said in a statement. “The fishing industry in the Great Lakes is a $7 billion a year economic engine and it would be severely threatened if Asian Carp are allowed into the Great Lakes.”

This finding comes as the Trump administration considers cutting the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative, a $300 million-per-year program that helps states with environmental projects such as keeping invasive Asian carp out of the lakes.

“Asian carp are a very serious threat to our Great Lakes economy,” Michigan Democratic Senator Debbie Stabenow tweeted. “The Trump Admin must immediately release the study they have been blocking so we can permanently stop the Asian carp!”

“This is one more reason why we must fully fund the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative again. I have fought proposed cuts from both the previous administration and the new one and I will continue to lead efforts in this Congress to ensure this critical initiative is fully funded,” Portman said.

The Illinois department of natural resources and the Asian Carp Regional Coordinating Committee said, “It is important to note that this preliminary finding does not confirm that a reproducing population of Asian carp currently exists above the electric dispersal barriers or within the Great Lakes.”

Nonetheless, the group is launching “two additional weeks of intensive sampling in the area.”